“The B cells have been waiting for at least 60 yearsif not 90 yearsfor that flu to come around again,” he said. “That’s amazing, because it’s the longest memory anyone’s ever demonstrated.” Determine if the survivors still had antibodies to the virus Aug 17 Vanderbilt University Medical Center press release The group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101. The multipronged study had four components, to: The findings appeared online Aug 17 in Nature. Study collaborators hail from several institutions: Vanderbilt University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Scripps Research Institute. Aug 19, 2008 (CIDRAP News) A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strains. See if the B cellsthe ones that produce the antibodiescould be cultured and produce antibodies to a 1918 virus protein Evaluate if the antibodies could protect mice infected with the 1918 influenza virus Dr Tshidi Tsibane, a study author and postdoctoral fellow in Mount Sinai School of Medicine’s microbiology department, said in a press release from Mount Sinai that though there is no need for a new treatment for 1918 influenza virus infections, the results are still useful. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects. Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin. From the B cells of three donors, the research group generated five monoclonal antibodies that not only strongly neutralized the 1918 virus, but also cross-reacted with proteins related to the 1930 swine flu virus. However, the antibodies did not react against more contemporary influenza strains. Author James E. Crowe, Jr, MD, professor of pediatrics and director of the Vanderbilt Program in Vaccine Sciences, said in a press release from Vanderbilt that the researchers were surprised by the findings. Attempt fusing cells having the highest levels of activity with myeloma cells to create a hybrid cell line that secretes monoclonal antibodies The people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report. The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. Xiaocong Y, Tsibane T, McGraw P, et al. Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors. Nature 2008 (published online Aug 17) [Abstract] Aug 17 Mount Sinai School of Medicine press release Inspiration for the study came from an unlikely source, an episode of an old medical television show that portrayed a town protecting itself from the 1918 virus outbreak by using blood from an elderly survivor, the Associated Press (AP) reported yesterday. The storyline prompted Eric Altschuler, MD, a professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at UMDND to ask the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a grant to test people over age 90 for the 1918 flu antibodies, according to the AP report. The NIH funded much of the study and enlisted the expertise of other experts. Anthony Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said recent studies have projected that immunity lasts several decades; the current study provides proof, the AP reported. “This is the mother of all immunological memory here,” he told the AP. The authors point out that it is difficult to be certain that the monoclonal antibodies they isolated were first stimulated during the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, they write that the subjects’ clinical histories and the high affinity of the monoclonal antibodies for the 1918 strain “strongly suggest that recent exposures do not account for this immunity.” They add that exposure to similar viruses circulating during first part of the 20th century probably bolstered the subjects’ B cell function. “These findings could serve as potential therapy for another 1918-like virus,” said Dr Tsibane in the statement. In the final arm of the study, the researchers infected mice with the reconstructed 1918 virus and the next day tested the five monoclonal antibodies at various doses to see if the therapy protected the animals. The mice receiving the lowest dose of the 1918 monoclonal antibody died, as did the ones receiving the control antibody. All given the highest antibody doses survived. See also:
Indianapolis, In. — State Representative Randy Lyness is accepting applications for the legislative intern program.Internships are open to college sophomores and up, including graduate students and recent graduates. Interns are paid and earn college credit for the experience.For more information email email@example.com or call 317-234-9380 or go online to indianahouserepublicans.com/forms/2018-house-republican-intern-application/ .
Pittsburgh Panthers wide receiver Devin Street (15) can’t hang onto the intended pass under pressure form Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets defensive back Demond Smith (12) in the second half of their NCAA college football game on Saturday, Nov. 2, 2013, in Atlanta. Georgia Tech won 21-10. (AP Photo/David Tulis)by Charles OdumAP Sports WriterATLANTA (AP) – The sacks total continues to climb against Pittsburgh and quarterback Tom Savage.Pitt, last in the ACC in sacks allowed, again struggled to protect Savage as Georgia Tech turned up the defensive pressure in its 21-10 win over the Panthers on Saturday night.Jeremiah Attaochu had two of Georgia Tech’s season-high five sacks. Robert Godhigh ran for two touchdowns for the Yellow Jackets.Pitt (4-4, 2-3 Atlantic Coast Conference) was held without a first down in the first quarter and managed only 55 total yards in the first half. Savage threw a 12-yard scoring pass to Tyler Boyd on the Panthers’ first possession of the second half, cutting Georgia Tech’s lead to 14-10.Savage completed 25 of 37 passes for 233 yards with one touchdown and one interception. The senior completed each of his four passes on the Panthers’ lone touchdown drive.An ineffective running game and inability to protect Savage made it difficult for Pitt to maintain the momentum. The Panthers were held to minus-5 yards rushing on 21 carries.“It’s frustrating losing,” Savage said. “It doesn’t matter if we win 3-0, our offense will be satisfied.“We’ve just got to find a way to win.”Pitt trailed 14-3 at halftime.“Just put it on me,” Savage said. “I’ve got to find a way to put the ball in the end zone and give my receivers a chance.”Pitt defensive tackle Aaron Donald had a season-high 11 tackles, one sack and forced two fumbles. He had a career-high six tackles for losses.Pittsburgh added a freshman starter to an already inexperienced offensive line. Left tackle Dorian Johnson made his first start, becoming Pitt’s first true freshman offensive lineman to start since Joe Thomas in 2006.Johnson started ahead of redshirt freshman Adam Bisnowaty, who played as a backup.Pitt coach Paul Chryst said an injury to Bisnowaty forced Dorian Johnson into the lineup for the difficult matchup against Attaochu.“Dorian was challenged tonight, but he did some good things,” Chryst said. “He did some things where he got beat. I need to do a better job of helping him on some of those things.”Pitt began the day last in the ACC with its average of 3.43 sacks allowed per game. The Panthers have allowed 29 sacks.Georgia Tech coach Paul Johnson said he was aware Pitt “had a couple of freshmen tackles.” Johnson said he saw an opportunity for Attaochu.“Jeremiah is a pretty good pass rusher,” Johnson said, adding Attaochu “was kind of caving in” the pocket.“He’s a handful to block one on one,” Johnson said. “He plays with a big motor. He plays hard and he’s quick off the ball.”Georgia Tech (6-3, 5-2) overcame two lost fumbles for its third straight win.Linebacker Jabari Hunt-Days had a sack and three tackles for losses. Defensive tackle Euclid Cummings had 1.5 sacks. Attaochu, who had 10 sacks in 2012, made the biggest impression on Savage.“He’s a great player,” Savage said. “He’s fast and he did a great job.”Vad Lee’s 42-yard pass to DeAndre Smelter set up Godhigh’s second touchdown run, from 11 yards, with less than 3 minutes remaining.David Sims had a touchdown run for Georgia Tech.Lee completed 5 of 10 passes for 84 yards – with exactly half of the production coming on the late pass to Smelter. Lee had 17 carries for 44 yards.Savage led Pitt on a final long drive after Godhigh’s second scoring run. Savage’s final pass was intercepted by safety Jemea Thomas at the Georgia Tech 4 with 33 seconds remaining.Sims had 18 carries for 94 yards, including a 12-yard touchdown run in the first quarter, but lost two fumbles. Godhigh had six carries for 89 yards, including a 35-yard touchdown run in the second quarter.Pitt netted only 1 yard on its first three possessions as Georgia Tech’s defense produced a series of tackles for losses on third downs.Attaochu’s first sack of Savage ended the Panthers’ first possession on three downs. Hunt-Days tackled running back James Conner for a loss of three yards on Pitt’s second series.On Pitt’s third series of plays, Attaochu again broke through the line to hit Savage just as the quarterback was trying to unleash a third-and-8 pass. The wobbly short pass was caught by center Artie Rowell. Georgia Tech declined the ineligible receiver penalty.Chris Blewitt kicked a 44-yard field goal in the second quarter for Pitt.The teams were playing for the first time since 1976.