CIA Concludes Saudi Prince Personally Ordered Jamal Khashoggis Death IBTimes VideoRelated VideosMore videos Play VideoPauseMute0:00/1:31Loaded: 0%0:01Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE-1:31?Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedSubtitlessubtitles settings, opens subtitles settings dialogsubtitles off, selectedAudio Trackdefault, selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. 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COPY LINKAD Loading … Missing journalist Jamal KhashoggiANIRecently US senators accused the kingdom of a series of misdeeds, adding that the Crown Prince has gone “full gangster.” The US lawmakers — Republicans and Democrats — also slammed the kingdom for the way it handled the civil war in Yemen as well as the series of alleged human rights abuses.”He is reckless, he’s ruthless, he has a penchant for escalation, for taking high risks, confrontational in his foreign policy approach and I think increasingly willing to test the limits of what he can get away with the United States,” Senator Marco Rubio said. Saudi crown prince Mohammad bin Salman said that the Israelis have the right to own their land.ReutersIf reports doing the rounds are true there is a widening rift between Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his father, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. The enfant terrible of the Al Saud dynasty has had a rather unchecked run so far as ‘King in everything but name’. However, the 33-year-old’s stranglehold on Saudi Arabia is on the wane, multiple reports have said.Prince Mohammad invited worldwide condemnation and infamy after the brutal killing of dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi inside the Saudi consulate in Turkey last year. His role in spearheading the bitter and destructive war on Yemen was also widely criticised. Of late, the Saudi King was also disturbed about the draining of investment from Saudi Arabia in the aftermath of the Khashoggi murder. Salman revokes crown prince’s key powersThe Guardian newspaper reported on Monday that King Salman has stripped the crown prince of some crucial powers. The ageing and ailing king made the move after the crown prince stretched his powers as the deputy king thin when his father was on an official visit to Egypt last month, the paper reported. It is extremely rare for a crown prince to use his temporary powers as the deputy king during the monarch’s absence, but MBS moved swiftly to announce key appointments when the king was travelling. He promoted his sister as the kingdom’s envoy to Washington and appointed his brother in the defence ministry. Sources told the British newspaper that both the appointments were done without the king’s approval. Saudi Arabia’s King Salman attends a Memorandum of Understanding signing ceremony in Putrajaya, Malaysia February 27, 2017. [Representational Image]Reuters fileThe King’s Egypt visit was marred by lurking fears of a possible coup against the ageing monarch. The fears were so palpable that the King removed his security detail midway through the foreign jaunt and brought in a 30-member team of handpicked loyalists from Riyadh.To make matters worse, the all powerful crown prince did not turn up at the airport to welcome back the King. This is an age old custom, the flouting of which sends out signals of grave crisis within the royal household. The crown prince’s absence at the airport was followed by his no-show at key meetings subsequently. The most glaring act of defiance was his absence at a key cabinet meeting presided over by the King. The crown prince was then summoned again for another cabinet meeting in which the king apparently detailed changes in the power structure. However, Prince Mohammad skipped this meeting too, Saudi sources told the paper. The report also lays down instances wherein the crown prince’s absence attracted attention. He did not turn up when important foreign dignitaries from Russia, India, China and Lebanon visited Riyadh. Middle East observers have also pointed out that the crown prince has not made any formal appearance in a fortnight. However, it remains a fact that MBS has remained unseen for longer. Around May last year, the prince’s continued absence at public events had given rise to wild rumours about his death or serious injury. The whole saga started with the shooting down of a drone in Riyadh on April 21 last year, which was interpreted as a coup attempt aimed at the crown prince. When MBS didn’t make any public appearance for weeks on end after this, Iranian media kick-started the death rumours. He is reckless, he’s ruthless, he has a penchant for escalation, for taking high risks, confrontational in his foreign policy approach and I think increasingly willing to test the limits of what he can get away with the United States Close MBS gone ‘full gangster'”At least two bullets have hit bin Salman in April 21 clashes in Riyadh and it is even possible that he is dead,” wrote Iran’s Kayhan newspaper. ‘There is plenty of evidence to suggest that the absence of nearly 30 days of Muhammad bin Sulman, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, is due to an incident which is being hidden from the public,’ it claimed. Something that added fuel to the death rumours was the fact that the crown prince gave a miss to important diplomatic events like the high profile visit of US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.
Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton said on Tuesday she was on the path to victory in the 2016 presidential election until late interference by Russian hackers and FBI Director James Comey scared off some potential supporters.In her most extensive public comments on the 8 November election, Clinton told a New York conference she was derailed by Comey’s 28 October letter informing Congress the Federal Bureau of Investigation had reopened a probe of her use of a private email server and by the WikiLeaks release of campaign chairman John Podesta’s emails, allegedly stolen by Russian hackers.“If the election had been on 27 October, I would be your president,” she told a women’s conference moderated by CNN’s Christiane Amanpour.“It wasn’t a perfect campaign, but I was on the way to winning until a combination of Comey’s letter and Russian WikiLeaks,” the Democrat said of the loss to Republican Donald Trump. “The reason why I believe we lost were the intervening events in the last 10 days.”Clinton, who said she is going through the “painful process” of writing a book dealing in part with the election, also said misogyny played a role in her defeat. Becoming the first woman US president would have been “a really big deal,” she said.Clinton took personal responsibility for the campaign’s mistakes, but did not question her strategy or her staff. “I was the candidate, I was the person who was on the ballot. I am very aware of the challenges, the problems, the shortfalls that we had,” Clinton said.She said she had no doubt that Russian President Vladimir Putin tried to influence the election for Trump, and bluntly criticised the new US president for some of his foreign policy views and for tweeting too much.“I’m back to being an activist citizen – and part of the resistance,” she said.Clinton said broader negotiations involving China and other countries in the region were critical for convincing North Korea to rein in its nuclear programme. She questioned Trump’s recent suggestion he would be willing to meet with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un under the right circumstances.“You should not offer that in the absence of a broader strategic framework to try to get China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, to put the kind of pressure on the regime that will finally bring them to the negotiating table,” Clinton said.She also said she supported the recent missile strikes ordered by Trump in Syria but was unsure if they would make a difference. “There is a lot that we don’t really yet fully know about what was part of that strike,” she said.
Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT). Source: Christian Thielemann More information: Reactions of the inner surface of carbon nanotubes and nanoprotrusion processes imaged at the atomic scale, Nature Chemistry (2011), doi:10.1038/nchem.1115, Published online 14 August 2011Related: Self-assembly of a sulfur-terminated graphene nanoribbon within a single-walled carbon nanotube, Nature Materials 10, 687–692 (2011), doi:10.1038/nmat3082 , Published online 07 August 2011 Carbon nanotube structures changed by ‘attack’ from within, researchers discover (PhysOrg.com) — Historically, the interior surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has not been considered to be chemically reactive. Recently, however, researchers at the University of Nottingham School of Chemistry in the UK and the Ulm University Transmission Electron Microscopy Group in Germany demonstrated sidewall (inner surface) chemical reactions when they inserted catalytically active atoms of rhenium metal (Re) into these atomically thin cylinders of carbon. These reactions formed nanometer-sized hollow protrusions in three distinct phases (sidewall deformation and rupture, open nanoprotrusion formation, and stable closed nanoprotrusion) which the researchers imaged at the atomic level – in real time at room temperature – using Aberration-Corrected High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (AC-HRTEM). Explore further Prof. Andrei N. Khlobystov conceived of the initial idea, proposed the general mechanism and wrote the original manuscript; Thomas W. Chamberlain designed the experiments, synthesized the materials and analyzed the microscopy data; Ute Kaiser contributed to the development of the experimental methodology and discussion of the results; Elena Bichoutskaia, Nicholas A. Besley and Adriano Santana performed the theoretical modeling and explained the details of the reaction mechanisms; and Johannes Biskupek analyzed the images, carried out TEM image simulations, and – with Jannik C. Meyer and Jens Leschner – recorded the AC-HRTEM images and contributed to the initial explanation of the observations.The main experimental challenge the team faced was to devise a method for delivering single atoms of catalytically active metal into very narrow carbon nanotubes with a diameter of 1.5 nm – about 80,000 times smaller than the thickness of human hair. “The presence of such metal atoms within the nanotube is important not just for investigating the chemical reactivity of the inner sidewall, but also for creating new nanostructures from the nanotube,” notes Khlobystov. The second major challenge, he adds, “was to study the delicate molecules, reactive atoms and their chemical transformation inside nanotubes in real-time at the atomic level.” To address these challenges, the team exploited the remarkable affinity of carbon nanotube with fullerenes – carbon nanostructures, which look like nanometer-sized cages and can be considered as structurally related to nanotubes. “The fullerenes are known to be attracted strongly into the nanotube cavity by van der Waals forces. We tagged each fullerene with a single atom of rhenium metal, so that each molecule brings a catalytically active metal atom into the nanotube,” Khlobystov explains. “It appears that such modified fullerenes are excellent vehicles for delivery of metal atoms into nanotubes, as they enter in nanotube spontaneously and irreversibly.”The second challenge, he continues, was solved by the researchers in Ulm, who applied a specially designed electron microscope that utilizes low energy electrons for imaging molecules and atoms. “They have succeeded at imaging the delicate molecules with atomic resolution and, most importantly, at capturing them in action – i.e., in chemical processes within the carbon nanotube in real time.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Inside story: Chemical reactivity on the inner surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (2011, September 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-story-chemical-reactivity-surface-single-walled.html Kaiser comments that “Our aim is use low voltage TEM – which is now possible after the introduction of hardware aberration correction by Harald Rose, Max Haider and Knut Urban – to study in detail the atom-by-atom level influence of electron-beam interacting with low-Z matter,” which is matter with a low atomic number. “To accomplish this we developed the real-time imaging and data acquisition technology to reveal carbon nanotubes and their interior in high contrast and atomic resolution. “In order to provide a comprehensive description of a possible mechanism for nanoprotrusion formation on carbon nanotube walls,” adds Bichoutskaia, “we used a multi-scale modeling approach that combined accurate quantum chemical methods with semi-empirical molecular dynamics simulations.”Going forward, there are a number of innovations that might be developed and applied to the current experimental design – for example, catalysts other than rhenium, carbon sources other than the fullerene cage wall, nanotubes produced or grown using an alternative method, nanotubes using different fullerene, or variations in the e-beam. “Our next steps include implementing catalysts and more complex molecules into carbon nanotubes,” Kaiser confirms. “We’re also working on varying the e-beam energy and detection efficiency in our Sub-Angström Low-Voltage Electron (SALVE) microscopy project at Ulm University.”Khlobystov points out that there are dozens of different metals in the Periodic Table of elements, and each of them has a distinct set of useful physicochemical properties that could be harnessed at the single-atom level. “Our method of transport and encapsulation of metals into nanotubes is quite universal, as it can be adapted for any of the transition metals, many of which have outstanding chemical, optical and magnetic properties,” he explains. “For example, introduction of photoactive atoms into carbon nanotubes, such as ruthenium or platinum, may enable initiation and control of chemical reactions within nanotubes using pulses of light, which would be more useful than an electron beam for practical applications.”Furthermore, transition metals with well-defined catalytic properties different from those of rhenium, such as palladium, platinum, rhodium, and nickel, could trigger entirely different reactions in nanotubes, leading to different products that are difficult to anticipate at this stage – but Khlobystov is confident that within the next 12 months the team will be able to tell exactly what can be achieved with other types of metals. “Even now,” he stresses, “we know that addition of non-metallic elements other, such as sulfur, into nanotubes can drastically change the course of chemical reactions inside the nanotube.” Recently, the team published a paper showing that when sulfur and carbon are present in nanotube together, we can form unique nanoribbon structures with remarkable properties.”In terms of how their research might impact the design and/or development of electronic, medical, sensor or other nanoscale devices, Khlobystov notes that since carbon nanotubes are ideal containers for molecules and atoms, “With one macroscopic dimension,” being length, “and two nanoscopic dimensions, they can serve as a bridge between the molecular and the macroscopic worlds. Magnetically active molecules embedded in nanotubes, for example, could be integrated in miniature data storage and spintronic devices, and nanotubes could be used as a capsule for delivery of medicinal molecules directly into diseased cells in human body.” Moreover, Khlobystov notes that the electronic properties of the nanotube itself, such as band gap and charge carrier concentrations and mobility, are greatly affected by interactions with the guest molecules inside the nanotube, which forms a basis for sensors and detectors. “Furthermore,” he adds, “development of nanotubes as chemical reactors is a very promising direction, as pathways and rates of chemical reactions confined in nanotubes are drastically affected by the nanotube. Chemical synthesis in nanotubes is a new way of making molecules that will enable us to make new products that are not possible to prepare otherwise. Catalysis by transition metals is essential in this context, and understanding direct reactions of metals with nanotubes is the first step.”Kaiser believes that besides chemists and physicists working on basic research, nanotechnologists devoted to topics such as energy storage, catalysis and medical drug delivery both on hard-, soft- and combined hard-soft matter will benefit from the team’s research. “New technologies in TEM control, efficiency that allows us to detect every scattered electron, and goniometer design that is not disturbed by drift issues during TEM data acquisition will strongly enhance the new applications.” (A goniometer allows a specimen to be rotated to a precise angular position.)Kaiser agrees that carbon nanotube spontaneous self-assembly and interior nanoprotrusion formation, which all may open new avenues for nanoscale molecular synthesis. She also cites the effect of confinement within carbon nanotubes as well as the newly shaped CNT with nanoprotrusions as potentially providing a new mechanism for tuning the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons. “The spectacular rotational and translational motion of helical nanoribbons within the nanotube, she adds, “as well as the possible regular formation of nanoprotrusions may inspire the exploration and harnessing of new electromechanical effects in nanodevices.”In the short-term, Khlobystov points out, the team is rapidly expanding the range of transition metals inserted into nanotubes to broaden the scope of chemical reactions studied under conditions of extreme confinement and, at the same time, to see whether the nanotube sidewall could be engaged in further, perhaps even more spectacular chemical transformations. “So far, our experiments have been carried out on a small scale, so our process would also need to be scaled up to test and explore real applications of these materials,” he acknowledges.For Kaiser, next steps include imaging more complex structures at the present 80kV aberration-corrected TEM and at 20kV with our new SALVE prototype microscope. “We will explore the electron-beam specimen interaction further and will probably discover further surprises,” she adds.The potential for an in vivo application remains uncertain. “At the moment,” Khlobystov opines, “I can’t really see how our process can be transferred to an in vivo protocol. The conditions required to spark chemical transformations in nanotubes are still very harsh. However, if a living system would possess some sort of super-enzyme that is able to crack carbon-carbon bonds of the nanotube sidewall, in principle, we could adopt our nanoreactors for a biological system.”Kaiser admits that this is rather speculative, noting the additional limitation that in vivo atomic resolution is not obtainable today. “However,” she opines, “with our SALVE initiative a new low-voltage TEM will be finalized in two years through our collaborations with partners CEOS and Carl Zeiss, we will be a step closer to image beam-sensitive biological materials.”Khlobystov emphasizes that these exciting applications rely on a well-defined and reliable interface between the nanotube container and the contained molecules and atoms. “Because a pristine nanotube has an atomically smooth surface, the molecules shuttle randomly from one position to another within the nanotube in almost frictionless motion. Nanoprotrusions formed on nanotubes in our experiments create hollow pockets on the nanotube inner surface, which can effectively trap desired molecules and atoms in a specific location, thus giving a mechanism for controlling their positions and orientations. A greater degree of control over the dynamic behavior of encapsulated molecules is essential,” he concludes, “for successfully harnessing the full potential of their optical, magnetic and chemical properties.”