Rob Green’s mistake eight minutes into his debut gifted Swansea the lead at Loftus Road.The QPR goalkeeper should have gathered Michu’s tame left-footed shot comfortably but instead allowed the ball to squirm through his hands and into the net.Jamie Mackie was then presented with a great chance to equalise after Adel Taarabt’s shot ricocheted into his path.Keeper Michel Vorm was able to parry Mackie’s close-range effort and the loose ball was hacked away from near the line by Chico Flores.Junior Hoilett also missed an opportunity to score, heading wide from a cross by fellow debutant Fabio, before a 25-yarder from Taarabt was well saved by Vorm.Rangers dominated most of the half but were twice rescued by the woodwork shortly before the break.First Ashley Williams headed against the crossbar after Green had been caught out by Jonathan de Guzman’s left-wing corner.Then, after Green again struggled to deal with a high ball, Michu’s volley from the edge of the six-yard box also struck the bar.See also:The QPR v Swansea City quizFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
ChelseaThe Blues’ Under-19 side beat Basel 2-1 on Tuesday afternoon, making it five wins out of five in the Uefa Youth League. Lewis Baker and John Swift scored the goals.QPRRangers are offering free coach travel to their fans for the Boxing Day match at Nottingham Forest. QPR chairman Tony Fernandes said: “I’ve always wanted to do something like offer fans free travel.”BrentfordThe Bees’ development side were beaten 3-1 at home by Ipswich. Alfie Mawson scored for Brentford, whose line-up included out-of-favour striker Paul Hayes.MiddlesexMiddlesex will visit Sussex for their first match of the County Championship season, which begins in April. Click here for the full list of fixtures. BoxingKilburn’s former British light-welterweight champion Ashley Theophane will fight in Shelton, Washington DC, on Saturday 6 December. His opponent has yet to be confirmed.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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
A group of Bushmen cross a salt pan inNamibia. The Bushmen are part of theKhoisan people, whose DNA links directlyto ancestors living 100,000 years ago.(Image: Chris Johns, National Geographic) DNA in mitochondria, the power producersof the cell, is providing clues to humanmigratory patterns.(Image: National Geographic)Janine ErasmusResearch carried out by the National Geographic Genographic project has revealed that the DNA of a small population of people living in the Karoo region of South Africa can be traced directly back to human ancestors of 100 000 years ago.The Karretjie people of South Africa’s Great Karoo region are so named because they are nomadic and carry all their worldly possessions with them in “karretjies” or donkey carts. They rely largely on seasonal sheep-shearing to earn a living.Yet in spite of their humble circumstances and the fact that they are one of the most marginalised of peoples in South Africa, this particular group of people is of immense scientific interest because they are related to the Khoisan and, uniquely, the DNA that they carry in every cell in their bodies can be traced back for more than 100 000 years.This gives researchers a more accurate glimpse of the movements of the human population at that time, and the ability to track the way that branches of that population split off and moved out into other areas.The Karretjie people are descended from both the Khoekhoen, the aboriginal herders of the Cape, and the San or Bushmen, who were hunters instead of herders. These are the First People, or earliest inhabitants of the region, and scientists have not yet established where they came from before they settled in Southern Africa.South Africa helping to map the movements of humankindThe National Geographic Genographic project was set up to map human migratory patterns going back many thousands of years. The project was launched in April 2005 in partnership with IBM and the Waitt Family Foundation, an organisation that provides funding for projects related to human ancestry. It will run over five years.Using the techniques of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome DNA analysis, scientists can reconstruct the hereditary lineage of individuals and their families. This is leading to a better understanding of humankind’s migratory history and how the human race spread out from its suggested origins in Africa, embarking on a journey 60 000 years ago to eventually cover the world.The public at large is encouraged to voluntarily contribute samples of their DNA for analysis and inclusion in the database, which will provide valuable information about specific genetic markers of descent. These are variations or natural mutations in DNA that are passed down in families and can be used to track migration and ancestry.Dr Spencer Wells, the director of the project, and a global team of scientists from ten prominent international institutions are in charge of studies in the field in their regions. The ten centres are located in Australia, Brazil, China, France, India, Lebanon, Russia, South Africa, Spain, and the US.Professor Himladevi Soodyall, director of the South African Medical Research Council’s (MRC) Human Genomic Diversity and Disease Research unit, is at the helm of the African section of the Genographic Project. Soodyall received a South African national order in 2005 for her outstanding work in the science of human origins. As a respected academic in the field she was invited to participate in the Genographic Project as the principal investigator for sub-Saharan Africa.Soodyall hopes to address several anthropological and genetic puzzles while working on the project, among them the question of how Indian Ocean trade activity influenced the gene pool in Africa, and the extent to which females have contributed towards shaping the gene pool, using mtDNA.Research at a local levelThe function of the Human Genomic Diversity and Disease Research unit is to integrate regional population history with the process of mapping and modelling human genetic variation.In collaboration with Professor Mike de Jongh of the University of South Africa’s Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, the unit is studying the Karretjie people of Colesberg.“There is still overwhelming evidence from genetic data to support the theory that modern humans evolved in Africa,” said Soodyall. “Our own research has shown that some of the oldest mtDNA lineages and Y-chromosomes haplotypes found in living humans are found in Khoisan populations. Thus, there is stronger evidence from genetic data to claim that the origins of our species lies here in Southern Africa, and not East Africa, as is usually claimed.”Tracing our ancestryThe MRC has found that in recent years genetic ancestry testing using the mtDNA and Y-chromosome techniques has grabbed the interest of South Africans and, says the council, more than 70% of people who call the Human Genomic Diversity and Disease Research unit for information decide to follow their call up with a test.Since February 2006 the unit has been offering ancestry tests to the public and, it says, several hundred people have already been tested. Interested parties can go to branches of the National Health Laboratory Service. The process starts with a 30-minute consultation with the subject; during which the whole procedure is explained.The subject, if still willing, signs a consent form, after which a cheek swab or blood sample is drawn and submitted for testing and comparison with data already held in databases. The process takes no longer than an hour and the subject receives a full explanation of their results. Since 2004, says the unit, over 600 people have been tested.Mitochondrial DNA a powerful tool for identificationMost of the genetic material in a living organism is found in the nucleus. The nucleus contains the chromosomes, which are made up of proteins and DNA. However, mitochondria, the structures in the cell that are responsible for generating power for the body through the burning of energy-rich molecules found in food, also contain a small amount of their own DNA. This is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA and is thought to have a different evolutionary origin to that of nuclear DNA.First sequenced in 1981, the human mitochondrial genome is a small ring of DNA that contains 37 genes. At a very distant stage of human evolution mitochondria were once independent living cells, almost like bacteria, but over millions of years they invaded primitive amoeboid cells and gradually became dependent on their hosts, losing the ability to exist independently.Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from mother to daughter without recombining. Sons receive mtDNA but don’t pass it on. Diseases caused as a result of mtDNA mutation are also passed down exclusively through the maternal line.Nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents and is a wholly individual characteristic because genes are rearranged through the process of genetic recombination, which takes place during cell division, resulting in the formation of sperm and egg cells.No such change occurs when mtDNA is passed from parent to child. This feature allows mtDNA to be used as a tool to track ancestry through the female line, going back hundreds of generations. It can also be used in forensics to identify human remains or to exclude matches between missing persons and unidentified remains. Because mtDNA remains the same across a span of many maternal generations it is better suited for the identification of older remains.The mtDNA technique was used to identify the woman known as Mitochondrial Eve, the most recent common ancestor through the mitochondrial pathway that connects mother to daughter. She lived about 140 000 years ago in East Africa and while she was not the only woman living at the time, she is the woman whose mitochondrial DNA is found today in every human alive.Y-chromosomal Adam is her male counterpart, a man who lived about 60 000 years ago in Africa. Traces of his DNA are today found in the Y-chromosomes of all living men.Useful linksNational Geographic Genographic ProjectMRC Human Genome projectWaitt Family FoundationNational Health Laboratory Services
Phil and Chris, hosts of the Green Architects’ Lounge Podcast, define and discuss embodied carbon in buildings, and make an impassioned case for understanding why this is absolutely the most urgent issue we face in the design and construction industry today—even ahead of zero-energy building—as we work together to combat a fast-approaching climate crisis.Listen to the podcastAudio Playerhttps://cdn.simplecast.com/audio/244dd9/244dd98f-d8ab-4943-9b47-4fb0f1713e30/dfff632a-3e39-4bea-9f57-1c11892dfe95/gal_102_master2_tc.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Embodied carbon is carbon that is emitted in the production of materials, and the building industry is responsible for 40% of global annual emissions. Buildings are the problem and the solution, and understanding the immediate impacts of embodied carbon is absolutely vital.Phil and Chris define the critical difference between embodied and operational carbon, and explain why net-zero-energy buildings simply aren’t enough at this moment in time. They take a pass at understanding the numbers behind the issues. They also spend the second half of the podcast talking about the materials that we either must, or absolutely should not specify. Wood is good, steel and concrete are bad, but anyone in the industry knows that this doesn’t leave us with a simple puzzle to solve.The Cocktail: The Bennett Cocktail2 oz. Gin¾ oz. Fresh lime juice¾ oz. Simple syrup2 dashes Angostura bittersDirections: Shake all ingredients with ice to chill, then strain into a chilled glass. Garnish with a lime wheel.The HighlightsWhat is embodied carbon? Carbon that is emitted in the production of materials.40% of global annual carbon emissions are caused by building industry.We need to understand eCO2e (embodied carbon emissions) vs. oCO2e (operational carbon emissions).What are the differences between embodied (upfront) vs. operational carbon? (11% embodied + 28% operational = 39% total)?We don’t have time to mess around. New zero-energy-buildings are simply not good enough to save us in time. Energy is not a proxy for carbon.Buildings are the problem and the solution. It’s best not to build at all, but if you must—and we must—embodied carbon emissions become critical.How is our tribe doing already? For residential construction, we are doing pretty well, and it’s been a good testing ground. The nerds need to distill the data into actionable rules of thumb so the non-nerds can act.Commercial is the big nut to crack: 33% of embodied carbon is in the structure.We can’t get to net zero-carbon with a dirty grid.Transport of workers to the job site is the biggest source of emissions.Impact of the work we do is more important that personal changes we make.Sometimes it actually can be better to tear down and build a smaller, high performance building.Impacts of the construction process are 20-25% of the total.Understanding the numbersCalculations now are right enough, we need action more than precision.Use only very round numbers—1,2,5,10,20,50,100—so they are retained.EPDs are the MPGs for buildings.How can a number be negative? Regenerative building can actually fix the environment.Top five materialsFSC-certified wood (all wood is not the same)Natural building materials (straw/hemp/wool)Cellulose insulationCross-laminated timbersWood fiberboard insulationBottom five materialsAluminumConcreteSteelRefrigerantsSpray foamSong of the episode747 by Bill CallahanLinksCarbon Smart Materials PaletteCarbon CureCarbon Leadership ForumThe New Carbon Architecture by Bruce KingImages courtesy of Chris Magwood, Endeavour Centre; Jacob Racusin, New Frameworks; Ace McArleton, New Frameworks.The Green Architects’ Lounge hosts are Chris Briley and Philip Kaplan. Chris is a principal at BRIBURN architecture for life. Phil is a principal at Kaplan Thompson Architects. Never miss an episode and take the podcast with you! Subscribe to the Green Architects’ Lounge on iTunes or from wherever you download your podcasts. The show’s Theme Music is Zelda’s Theme by Perez Prado. Special thanks to our sponsor Pinnacle Window Solutions!
Stating that the plight of the farmer was a much more critical issue than the question of the future chief ministerial post, Shiv Sena president Uddhav Thackeray on Sunday cautioned that the ruling government would be in a serious spot if the farmer’s issues boiled over.“I am not bothered who will be the next Chief Minister and from which party. Unfortunately, this question has assumed significance for some people who think it is greater than the burning question of farmers. I am only concerned about the farmers of Maharashtra securing justice and their woes being redressed. Until this happens, I will continue to regard politicos as unworthy,” Mr. Thackeray said, addressing farmers in Shrirampur in Ahmednagar district.The Sena chief, who was taking stock of a help centre set-up by his party workers in the tehsil, said that the ruling government [BJP-Sena] must not be complacent following its Lok Sabha win and must strive to place the farmers’ woes high on its agenda.“The farmer is not a slave. There is a limit to his sacrifice and patience. Once they are exceeded, it could prove severely detrimental to those in power. I assure that the Sena will not rest till farmers are given their due,” said Mr. Thackeray.At the same time, the Sena president quashed suggestions of any schisms in his party’s alliance with the BJP, stating that the saffron coalition was strong and that detractors needn’t be concerned about the possibility of any rift.“I do not speak against the BJP-led government. Having said that, I want to state that one of the conditions of our alliance with the BJP was the issue of completely writing off loans for the farmers, and not a mere loan waivee. The Sena will ensure that every farmer avails of this benefit,” Mr. Thackeray said.He reiterated his warning that the Shiv Sena would take action against insurance companies and banks denying financial aid to farmers.“It is the responsibility of these companies to give them insurance money. But I have information that many are refusing to do so. I only want to warn them that they cannot escape justice like a Nirav Modi or a Vijay Mallya,” said the Sena chief.