“The B cells have been waiting for at least 60 yearsif not 90 yearsfor that flu to come around again,” he said. “That’s amazing, because it’s the longest memory anyone’s ever demonstrated.” Determine if the survivors still had antibodies to the virus Aug 17 Vanderbilt University Medical Center press release The group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101. The multipronged study had four components, to: The findings appeared online Aug 17 in Nature. Study collaborators hail from several institutions: Vanderbilt University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Scripps Research Institute. Aug 19, 2008 (CIDRAP News) A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strains. See if the B cellsthe ones that produce the antibodiescould be cultured and produce antibodies to a 1918 virus protein Evaluate if the antibodies could protect mice infected with the 1918 influenza virus Dr Tshidi Tsibane, a study author and postdoctoral fellow in Mount Sinai School of Medicine’s microbiology department, said in a press release from Mount Sinai that though there is no need for a new treatment for 1918 influenza virus infections, the results are still useful. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects. Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin. From the B cells of three donors, the research group generated five monoclonal antibodies that not only strongly neutralized the 1918 virus, but also cross-reacted with proteins related to the 1930 swine flu virus. However, the antibodies did not react against more contemporary influenza strains. Author James E. Crowe, Jr, MD, professor of pediatrics and director of the Vanderbilt Program in Vaccine Sciences, said in a press release from Vanderbilt that the researchers were surprised by the findings. Attempt fusing cells having the highest levels of activity with myeloma cells to create a hybrid cell line that secretes monoclonal antibodies The people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report. The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. Xiaocong Y, Tsibane T, McGraw P, et al. Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors. Nature 2008 (published online Aug 17) [Abstract] Aug 17 Mount Sinai School of Medicine press release Inspiration for the study came from an unlikely source, an episode of an old medical television show that portrayed a town protecting itself from the 1918 virus outbreak by using blood from an elderly survivor, the Associated Press (AP) reported yesterday. The storyline prompted Eric Altschuler, MD, a professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at UMDND to ask the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a grant to test people over age 90 for the 1918 flu antibodies, according to the AP report. The NIH funded much of the study and enlisted the expertise of other experts. Anthony Fauci, MD, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said recent studies have projected that immunity lasts several decades; the current study provides proof, the AP reported. “This is the mother of all immunological memory here,” he told the AP. The authors point out that it is difficult to be certain that the monoclonal antibodies they isolated were first stimulated during the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, they write that the subjects’ clinical histories and the high affinity of the monoclonal antibodies for the 1918 strain “strongly suggest that recent exposures do not account for this immunity.” They add that exposure to similar viruses circulating during first part of the 20th century probably bolstered the subjects’ B cell function. “These findings could serve as potential therapy for another 1918-like virus,” said Dr Tsibane in the statement. In the final arm of the study, the researchers infected mice with the reconstructed 1918 virus and the next day tested the five monoclonal antibodies at various doses to see if the therapy protected the animals. The mice receiving the lowest dose of the 1918 monoclonal antibody died, as did the ones receiving the control antibody. All given the highest antibody doses survived. See also:
Van Persie had gone 10 domestic matches without scoring but won and then converted a penalty in the 66th minute to make the points safe. Michael Carrick had opened the scoring inside four minutes and United now need only seven points from their remaining six games to ensure they cannot be caught by Manchester City. Stoke dropped to 16th before kick-off after Sunderland’s win over Newcastle, having taken only one point from their last seven games. Press Association Captain Nemanja Vidic was back from a calf injury in one of four United changes from Monday’s derby defeat, while Stoke boss Tony Pulis had Glenn Whelan fit but Matthew Etherington and Marc Wilson were out so Charlie Adam and Andy Wilkinson started. What the Potters really could not afford was a bad start, but they made exactly that, conceding a fourth-minute corner that they failed to clear, allowing Carrick to prod beyond the despairing dive of Asmir Begovic. With Wayne Rooney dictating play from a deep-lying midfield role, United were completely in control. Rooney was given space and time to take aim from 25 yards with a shot pushed away by Asmir Begovic as Stoke struggled even to touch the ball. Begovic was forced into another save just past the half-hour mark, scooping a Van Persie shot from a narrow angle behind. Stoke at least finished the half well as Wilkinson – sporting a bandage on his head after being caught by a high Javier Hernandez boot – barrelled down the right and into the area before seeing his shot blocked by Vidic. An encouraging sign for Stoke was the increasing influence of Adam, and the midfielder tested David de Gea for the first time in the 59th minute with a well-struck shot from long range. But the Potters’ hopes were dealt a crushing blow when they gave away a penalty. A flowing move that began with Phil Jones holding off Jon Walters in United’s right-back spot progressed through Antonio Valencia and Rooney, who picked out Van Persie in the area. The Dutchman cut inside Wilkinson, who tripped him, and Van Persie stepped up to tuck his spot-kick smartly into the bottom corner before running to the touchline to celebrate with Sir Alex Ferguson. Robin van Persie ended his goal drought as Manchester United restored their 15-point lead at the top of the Barclays Premier League table and deepened Stoke’s relegation worries with a 2-0 victory.
Jamie Heaslip shelved any fear that three cracked vertebrae would end his RBS 6 Nations campaign to complete his remarkable recovery to face Wales. Ireland’s most-capped number eight has long been famed for his ability to avoid injury, but now the Leinster stalwart can add quickfire recoveries to his catalogue of Test powers. Joe Schmidt’s side can take a giant leap towards their second Grand Slam in seven years with victory in Cardiff on Saturday, and Heaslip is in confident mood after beating his back problem to reclaim his starting berth. “I don’t personally listen to outside sources, I listen to our trusted medical team and they gave me some very good guidance,” said Heaslip of hints his back injury could have ended his Six Nations. “I live in a little bubble of day-to-day week to week so it makes life easy for me not to look too far down the line. “It was an injury where I had to go day by day and every day was getting really, really good and progressed really well. “We mapped out a really good, clear plan, in terms of ticking the boxes in recovery and I have ticked them along the way and now I’m good to go. “It’s great to be back, it’s not the easiest of things to stand on the sidelines being held on a leash a little bit, that was probably for my own good, but it’s great to get the opportunity to wear the jersey again. “I’m a stubborn git and Joe knows that better than anyone. Press Association The British and Irish Lions number eight wound up with three fractures after Pascal Pape’s crude knee to his back in Ireland’s 18-11 victory over France. The 31-year-old trudged out of the latter stages of that February triumph in Dublin, amid claims his Six Nations would be halted prematurely. “I want to live life at 100 miles an hour and sometimes that’s not the smartest thing to do, and all the medical staff and backroom staff were great in helping me get back on my own two feet.” Paul O’Connell will win his 100th Ireland cap in Wales, equalling Mick Galwey’s record as the nation’s oldest Test captain, at exactly 35 years and 145 days. Lynchpin fly-half Johnny Sexton is fit to win his 50th Ireland cap after hamstring trouble, as Schmidt’s side bid to close in on the Grand Slam. Cian Healy will also win his 50th cap if called into the fray from the bench, with Ireland gunning for a record 11th Test win in succession. Ireland boss Schmidt insisted he had no doubts on fly-half Sexton’s fitness, with the Racing Metro man having beaten his race against time to feature in Cardiff. Munster fly-half Ian Keatley is expected to travel with the squad as precautionary cover, given the Irish provinces are not in Guinness Pro12 action this weekend. Kiwi coach Schmidt also hailed evergreen lock O’Connell as the binding force of his side’s growing determination as he gears up to join Ireland’s century club. “Johnny’s had a very good run into the game, and he’s had no problems right through that,” said Schmidt. “I guess you’ll worry about all the players, about some returning from injury and if they get a knock and get compromised. “You can’t calculate for that, but you can make sure you have the cover prepared and ready to go. “There’s a part of Paul (O’Connell) that would love to play forever, but he’s pretty excited about right now too. “He’s been a fantastic leader, and we’ve got a group then who lead with him and the other players lead themselves.” France lock Pape was slapped with a 10-week ban for his agricultural challenge on Heaslip on attempting to enter a ruck as Les Bleus struggled at the Aviva Stadium. The Stade Francais second row had an appeal against that decision struck out, even though Heaslip fully accepted an apology sent via Twitter. Pape may now already have played his last Six Nations match, given he is set to retire after the autumn World Cup. In the immediate aftermath of the skirmish, Heaslip admitted he did not fret over the severity of the problem – instead taskmaster coach Schmidt’s training-ground orders blasted through his head. “At the time I just thought it was bloody sore, and I told myself ‘get up’,” said Heaslip. “I strangely heard Joe (Schmidt) in my head screaming at me to get up. “I didn’t know if it was a knee or a shoulder. “I tried to get on with it, but it stiffened up and I had to come off.”
The Champions of this year Petra organised Milo sponsored Schools Football tournament will be decided this evening when Chase Academic Foundation plays Morgan Learning Center at the Ministry of Education ground.Chase, are the defending champions and are favourites to lift the title once again.A host of players with a wealth of knowledge of the game also gives them a sizable edge over their opponentsPlayers such as: Reshawn Ritch, Job Caesar, Nicholas McArthur-Jeremy Garrett, Malachi Adonis, Rondell Peters and Ryan Hackett will be the key in the Chase’s lineup.On the converse side, Morgan’s has players like – David Coates, Osafo Matheson, Chris Macey, Adrian Adolph, Daniel Clarke and Orin Moore have proven that they too can get the job done.Meanwhile, the third place playoff between Sir Leon’s Lesson and Master’s Academy will kicks off from 17:00 hrs.Winner of the tournament will collect $500,000 towards a school project and the championship trophy, while the second, third and fourth placed sides will receive $300,000,$200,000 and $100,000 respectively towards a similar endeavor and trophies.