News TurkeyEurope – Central Asia to go further Receive email alerts Help by sharing this information Human rights groups warns European leaders before Turkey summit July 8, 2010 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Blocking of YouTube maintained for questionable motives RSF_en April 28, 2021 Find out more Organisation Turkey’s never-ending judicial persecution of former newspaper editor News Reporters Without Borders urges the authorities to put a complete stop to their blocking of YouTube and to review their Internet filtering policies after an Ankara court yesterday refused to rescind a court order blocking access to 44 IP addresses that offered alternative ways to access the Google-owned video-sharing website. The main YouTube site has itself been blocked on the same court’s orders since 5 May 2008. The blocking of the 44 other IP addresses, ordered in mid-June, resulted in the disruption of other Google services such as Google Maps and Google Analytics. The latter is still affected. The case has now been transferred to another court in Ankara for evaluation.“Turkey’s Internet law allows the authorities to block access to thousands of websites,” Reporters Without Borders said. “The blocking of YouTube has had a particular impact. The authorities undermine their own credibility by denying the Turkish people access to a means of communication and information that is widely used internationally.”The press freedom organisation added: “Their credibility is further weakened by the fact that the blocking is also a form of financial blackmail, inasmuch as they have let it be understood that it is linked to their desire to make Google pay taxes.”YouTube was blocked in 2008 under Law 5651 because of a dozen videos that were deemed to insult the Turkish republic’s founder, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In effect since November 2007, Law 5651 on “the organisation of online publications and the fight against crimes committed by means of such publications” allows prosecutors to block a site within 24 hours if its content is deemed liable to incite suicide, paedophilia, drug abuse, obscenity or prostitution, or violate a law forbidding any attacks on Atatürk.The 44 addresses offering alternative access to YouTube were blocked last month at the request of the Ankara prosecutor in charge of investigating press crimes.Turkish media reports on 5 July meanwhile highlighted the ambiguity of official statements about the blocking. Hayri Keskin, a judge, said YouTube continued to be censored because it still violated the Internet law but transport minister Binali Yildirim suggested it was more to do with a desire to tax the advertising earnings of YouTube and Google.Dunja Mijatovic, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s media freedom representative, wrote to the Turkish authorities on 22 June to again urge them to restore access to YouTube and other Google services. News Journalists threatened with imprisonment under Turkey’s terrorism law TurkeyEurope – Central Asia April 2, 2021 Find out more News Follow the news on Turkey April 2, 2021 Find out more
Indonesia is preparing to offer Rp 900.4 trillion (US$62.35 billion) worth of sovereign debt papers (SBN) in the second half of the year as debt financing swells significantly to fund the country’s coronavirus response.The government had raised Rp 630.5 trillion worth of SBN as of June this year, including $4.3 billion from a three-tranche United States dollar denominated bond in April and $2.5 billion from a three-tranche global sukuk (sharia-compliant bond) last month, according to the Finance Ministry’s financing strategy and portfolio director, Riko Amir.“The market will not be able to absorb all of the Rp 900.4 trillion worth of bonds and therefore there will be a burden sharing scheme between the government and Bank Indonesia,” Riko said in a discussion on Thursday. The government, he went on to say, was still in negotiations with the central bank on the details of the scheme. The central bank and the government are set to sign an agreement on a bond sale program worth Rp 574 trillion at zero interest or below the market rate of 7 percent, which will be the largest debt monetization program among developing economies.Read also: Indonesia raises $930m in samurai bonds to fund pandemic responseUnder the agreement, Bank Indonesia (BI) will buy Rp 397.6 trillion worth of bonds with zero yields for healthcare and social safety net programs, among other things.The central bank will also purchase Rp 123.4 trillion worth of bonds with a 3.25 percent yield to fund relief programs for small and medium businesses as well as Rp 53.57 trillion worth of bonds to rescue big businesses with a 4.25 percent interest rate, the current benchmark rate. “BI is ready to share the burden not only in the financing efforts but also those related to the debts,” BI Governor Perry Warjiyo told lawmakers on Monday, adding that the scheme would ease the government’s burden for paying higher interest rates as a result of the widening deficit.The central bank has already been buying government bonds in auctions, although in small portions, to help finance the government’s spending. BI has so far bought Rp 30.33 trillion in government bonds directly at auctions and bought another Rp 166.2 trillion of bonds in the secondary market to help stabilize the country’s currency.Under an emergency law issued by President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo to respond to the COVID-19 outbreak’s economic impacts, BI is allowed to buy government bonds directly at auctions. Previously, the central bank could only buy the debt papers on the secondary market.The government is facing the daunting task of borrowing Rp 1.53 quadrillion this year to fund the budget deficit, which is expected to reach 6.34 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), as well to finance investments and repay its debts.Read also: Administrative issues hamper COVID-19 budget disbursement: Sri MulyaniThis is an increase from a previous borrowing needs projection of Rp 1.4 quadrillion announced by the government in April, as it has now allocated Rp 695.2 trillion budget to strengthen the healthcare system and bolster the economy amid the pandemic.According to the ministry’s presentation materials, the borrowing needs will increase the country’s debt-to-GDP ratio to around 37.64 to 38.5 percent by the end of year from around 30 percent in 2019.“We will maintain the debt ratio within the safe limit of below 60 percent of GDP and we will be prudent in managing the debts while also supporting the countercyclical policies,” said Riko.The coronavirus pandemic has ravaged the country’s economy as the government now expects a full year growth of only 1 percent under a baseline scenario or a 0.4 percent contraction under a worst-case scenario.Topics :
20 November 2014The number of rhinos killed for their horns continues to rise in South Africa, fuelled by a multi-billion dollar illicit global trade in wildlife.The South African department of environmental affairs says 1 020 have been killed so far since January 2014, 16 more than the number of rhinos killed during the same period last year.Kruger National Park seems to be the prime spot for rhino poaching. The park recorded highest number of rhinos killed with 672 poached so far this year. By province, a total of 110 rhino have been poached in Limpopo, 84 in KwaZulu-Natal, 70 in Mpumalanga, 58 in North West and 15 in the Eastern Cape.In a statement released on Thursday, 20 November, the department said curbing rhino poaching is exacerbated by the lure of big money for the poachers who are raking in huge amounts of money from their illicit deeds.However, South Africa will continue to strengthen existing measures to curtail the killing of rhinos in the country, and is working on new ways to ensure the long-term survival of the species.“Government is implementing integrated strategic management of rhinoceros in South Africa to address the ongoing scourge. This includes interventions aimed at disrupting crime syndicates,’ the department said.Some of the perpetrators have not gone scot free, though. South Africa’s efforts to arrest and bring them to book have seen some success. A total of 344 alleged rhino poachers, couriers and poaching syndicate members have been arrested in South Africa since the start of 2014.The record number of arrests this year follows an intensification of anti-poaching actions by the South African National Parks (SANParks), the police, the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and provincial conservation and security officials.“South Africa’s multi-disciplinary response further includes the creation of an intensive protection zone within the Kruger National Park, the introduction and implementation of new technology, pro-active intelligence, improving national, regional and international collaboration, and translocating rhino to safe areas within South Africa, and in rhino range states,’ says the department.Speaking at a Rhino Conservation side event at the 6th World Parks Congress in Sydney, Australia, this week, Minister of Environmental Affairs Edna Molewa, said it is unfortunate that the threat of poaching has continued to escalate while various multi-faceted interventions are being implemented by South Africa.“We are concerned that poaching is part of a multi-billion dollar worldwide illicit wildlife trade. Addressing the scourge is not simple.’The public can report incidents of poaching and tip-offs using the anonymous tip-off lines 0800 205 005, 08600 10111 or Crime-Line on 32211.SAnews.gov
InformationA cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. It can be used for people who are deaf or very hard of hearing. A cochlear implant is not the same thing as a hearing aid. The device is surgically implanted and works in a different way.There are many different types of cochlear implants. However, they made up of several similar parts. One part is implanted into the bone around the ear (temporal bone) using surgery. It is made up of a receiver-stimulator. This part of the device accepts, decodes, and then sends an electrical signal to the brain.The second part of the cochlear implant is outside the ear. It is made up of a microphone/receiver, a speech processor, and an antenna. This part of the device receives the sound, changes the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to the inside part of the implant.WHO USES A COCHLEAR IMPLANT?Cochlear implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. To some degree, these devices allow deaf people to “hear.” It is important to note that these devices do not restore normal hearing. They are tools that allow sound and speech to be processed and sent to the brain.Both children and adults can be candidates for cochlear implants. They may have been born deaf or became deaf after learning to speak. Children as young as 1 year old are now candidates for this surgery. The basis for selection may vary slightly from adults to children. The basic guidelines are:advertisementThe person should be completely or almost completely deaf in both ears, and get very little help from hearing aids. Anyone who can hear well enough with hearing aids is not a good candidate for cochlear implants.The patient needs to be highly motivated. After the cochlear implant is placed, the person must learn how to use the device.The patient needs to know what kind of hearing improvement should be expected after surgery. The device does not restore or create “normal” hearing.Children need to be enrolled in programs that help them learn how to process sound.Before being considered for the implant, the patient must have an exam by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctor (otolaryngologist). Patients will also need specific types of hearing tests that are done with their hearing aids on. This may include a CT scan or MRI scan of the brain and the middle and inner ear.Patients (especially children) may need psychological evaluation to determine if they are good candidates.HOW IT WORKSIn a normal ear, sounds are transmitted through the air, causing the eardrum and then the middle ear bones to vibrate. This sends a wave of vibrations into the inner ear (cochlea). These waves are then converted by the cochlea into electrical signals, which are sent along the auditory nerve to the brain.A deaf person does not have a functioning inner ear. A cochlear implant attempts to replace the function of the inner ear by turning sound into electrical energy. This energy can then be used to stimulate the cochlear nerve (the nerve for hearing), sending “sound” signals to the brain.Most cochlear implantshave similar parts.Sound is picked up by a microphone worn near the ear. This sound is sent to a speech processor usually connected to the microphone and worn behind the ear.The sound is analyzed and converted into electrical signals, which are sent to a surgically implanted receiver behind the ear.The receiver sends the signal through a wire into the inner ear. From there, the electrical impulses are sent to the brain.HOW IT IS IMPLANTEDDuring the surgery:You will be asleep and pain free during this surgery.A surgical cut is made behind the ear. You may need some of your hair shaved behind your ear. A microscope and bone drill are used to open the bone behind the ear (mastoid bone) to allow the inside part of the implant to be inserted.The electrode array is passed into the inner ear (cochlea).The receiver is placed into a pocket created behind the ear. The pocket helps keep it in place, and makes sure it is close enough to the skin to allow electrical information to be sent from the device. A “well” may be drilled into the bone behind the ear so the implant is less likely to move under the skin.After surgery:There will be stitches behind the ear.You may be able to feel the receiver as a bump behind the ear.Any shaved hair should grow back.The outside part of the device will be placed 1to 4 weeks after surgery to give the opening time to heal.RISKS OF SURGERYadvertisementMost of the time, a cochlear implant is a safe surgery. However, all surgeries pose some risks. Common risks include:Wound healing problemsSkin breakdown over the implanted deviceInfection near implant siteThese are problems are rare now that the surgery can be done through only a small cut.Less common complications include:Damage to the nerve that moves the face on the side of the operationLeakage of the fluid around the brain (cerebrospinal fluid)Infection of the fluid around the brain (meningitis)Temporary dizziness (vertigo)Failure of the device to workAbnormal tasteRECOVERY AFTER SURGERYFollowing your operation:You may be admitted to the hospital to be watched overnight. (Many hospitals now let patientsgo home the day of surgery.)Your health care provider will give you pain medicines. You may also get antibiotics to prevent infection.Many surgeons place a large dressing over the operated ear. The dressing is removed the day after surgery.A week or more after surgery, the outside part of the cochlear implant is secured to the receiver-stimulator that was implanted behind the ear. It is only at this point that you will be able to use the device.The implantwill beattached to the outside processor when the surgeryis healed. You will begin to work with specialists to learn to “hear” and process sound using the cochlear implant. These specialists may include:AudiologistsSpeech therapistsEar, nose, and throat doctors (otolaryngologists)Working with the specialists after surgery is a key part of the process. You will need to make a joint effort with your health care team to get the most benefit from the implant.OUTLOOKResults with cochlear implants vary widely. How well you do depends on:The condition of the hearing nerve before surgeryYour mental abilitiesThe device being usedThe length of time you were deafThe surgerySome patients can learn to communicate on the telephone. Others can only recognize sound. Getting themost results can take up to several years. You need to be motivated. Patients are often enrolled in hearing and speech rehabilitation programs.LIVING WITH AN IMPLANTOnce you have healed, you may need to make some changes.Most activities are OK. However, some health care providers recommend avoiding full-contact sports. This isto lessen the chance of trauma to the implanted device.Most patients with cochlear implants cannot get MRI scans, because the implant is made of metal.ReferencesBalkany TJ, Brown KD, Gantz BJ. Cochlear implantation: Medical and surgical considerations. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:chap 159.Brown KD, Balkany TJ. Benefits of bilateral cochlear implantation: a review. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;15:315-318.Papsin BC, Gordon KA. Cochlear implants for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2380-2387.advertisementSparreboom M, van Schoonhoven J, van Zanten BG, et al. The effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implants for severe-to-profound deafness in children: a systematic review. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Sep;31(7):1062-71.Review Date:5/21/2013Reviewed By:Ashutosh Kacker, MD, BS, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Associate Attending Otolaryngologist, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
3.1464 3.1415926535 3.141592657 3.141592610 3.14133 3.141526 3.173 LEVEL OF PRECISIONPERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS Today is Pi Day — the day each year, March 14, that follows the first three digits of pi (3.14). And this year’s Pi Day is a special one: Since — in the U.S. — the date is represented as 3/14/15, we have the first five digits of pi on the calendar.That’s news for some people. When it comes to how many digits of pi people know by heart, the majority only know 3.14. Which is fine! Unless you’re building a bridge, that’s the most you will really need to know.I asked SurveyMonkey Audience to put out a poll to see how far people could get reciting the infinite digits of pi. Of 941 respondents, 836 attempted to name the digits after the decimal point. This is how far they got: 3.14159212 3.1415919 If you can get to the first 3 after the decimal point, you’re in the top 5 percent of pi memorizers. I asked the people who got that far to keep going, and most tapped out shortly after.The biggest drop came after “3.14,” as respondents who got that far made it to “3.141” only about 52 percent of the time.And that’s fine!NASA employees can probably get away with knowing only the first six digits after the decimal point. Also, we have calculators for when we need a few more digits, TI-89s for when those calculators are insufficient and Wolfram Alpha for when we reduce those calculators to a smoking, melted mess.Maybe after the highly anticipated apocalypse, the guys at the Large Hadron Collider will be happy to have that dude who memorized tens of thousands of pi digits around, but for now, he’s just got a weird hobby. Knowing pi is strictly a performative act, like people who readily volunteer their SAT score or high school completion percentage.But, uh, happy holidays.